تأملی در امکان‌سنجی اعمال صلاحیت دیوان بین‌المللی کیفری نسبت به جرایم زیست‌محیطی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه حقوق عمومی و بین‌الملل دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

3 دانش‌آموخته دکتری تخصصی رشته حقوق بین‌الملل دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

چکیده

دیوان بین‌المللی کیفری به موجب اساسنامه خود صلاحیت موضوعی مشخصی نسبت به چهار جنایت اصلی بین­المللی دارد. این جنایات، مهم‌ترین جنایاتی هستند که نگرانی عمدة جامعة جهانی می­باشند. جرایم زیست­محیطی در میان این چهار عنوان وجود ندارد. بنابراین پرسش این مقاله این است که آیا دیوان بین‌المللی کیفری می­تواند به اعمال صلاحیت نسبت به جرایم زیست­محیطی بپردازد. جرایم زیست­محیطی به‌طور کلی از شرایط عمومی که لازمة جنایات تحت صلاحیت دیوان است، مانند شدید بودن و بین­المللی بودن، برخوردارند و از این‌رو در قالب اساسنامه نیز می­توانند تحت بررسی قرار گیرند. هرچند، در نظم حقوقی بین­المللی فعلی، امید چندانی به اصلاح اساسنامه و درج عنوان مجرمانة جدیدی تحت نام جنایت زیست­محیطی وجود ندارد، اما مقررات فعلی اساسنامه به قدر کفایت از گنجایش و ظرفیت لازم برای شمول بر جرایم زیست­محیطی تحت هر یک از سه عنوان ژنوسید، جنایات جنگی و بخصوص، جنایت علیه بشریت برخوردار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Reflection on the Feasibility of Applying the International Criminal Court’s Jurisdiction over Environmental Crimes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Heybatollah Najandi manesh 1
  • S. Ali Hosseiniazad 2
  • Majid Zahmatkesh 3
1 Assistant Professor of Allameh Tabataba'i University
2 Ph.D student in International Law at Allameh Tabataba'i University
3 PhD student in International Law, Islamic Azad University
چکیده [English]

International Criminal Court based on its statute has a specific subject-matter jurisdiction over the four core international crimes; these are the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole. The environmental crimes are not among those four titles. The main question in this article is whether ICC is able to apply jurisdiction over the environmental crimes. Environmental crimes have common criteria of crimes under ICC’s jurisdiction such as gravity and international nature. So, those crimes may be considered by ICC under the Rome Statute. Although, in the current legal order there is no hope of amendment to the statute and inclusion of new crime of ecocide in subject-matter jurisdiction. Current system of statute has enough capability and capacity to cover environmental crimes under any crime of genocide, war crimes and specially, crimes against humanity.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental crimes
  • International Criminal court
  • International Crime
  • Rome Statute
  • Subject-matter jurisdiction
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