سازوکارهای کارآمد و مشروع عدالت انتقالی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه حقوق دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

عدالت انتقالی به معنی اجرای عدالت در جوامع انتقالی است. جوامع انتقالی جوامعی هستند که از تخلف­های گسترده و سازمان­یافته حقوق بشری و بشردوستانه که اغلب به عنوان جرایم بین­المللی شناخته می­شوند، به سمت یک صلح و سازش دایمی در حال گذار هستند. بسیاری از حقوقدانان بر این عقیده هستند که اجرای عدالت نسبت به جرایم ارتکابی مستلزم اجرای عدالت کیفری است. اما تجربه اغلب جوامع انتقالی بیانگر این است که اجرای عدالت کیفری در جوامع انتقالی نه تنها غیرممکن، بلکه بسیار خطرناک است. از آن­جا که می­تواند صلح شکننده در جوامع انتقالی را در معرض خطر قرار دهد. در عین حال برای تمام جوامع انتقالی اجرای عدالت کیفری امکان­پذیر نیست. یک ارزیابی از جوامع انتقالی اثبات می­نماید که اغلب این جوامع از سازوکارهای غیرکیفری مانند کمیسیون­های حقیقت­یاب، برنامه­های جبران خسارت و سازوکارهای سنتی اجرای عدالت جهت رسیدگی به جرایم ارتکابی در گذشته استفاده نموده­اند. در این مقاله به دنبال پاسخ به این سؤال­ها هستیم که عدالت از منظر یک جامعه انتقالی به چه معناست و به دنبال چه هدفی است و کدام­یک از سازوکارهای عدالت انتقالی (کیفری و یا غیرکیفری) بهتر می­تواند پاسخگوی اهداف یک جامعه انتقالی باشد و آیا سازوکارهای اخیر می­توانند در عرصه بین­المللی دارای اعتبار باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Efficient and Legitimate Mechanisms of Transitional Justice

نویسنده [English]

  • Mahin Sobhani
چکیده [English]

Transitional Justice means doing justice in transitional societies. Transitional societies refers societies to whith transit from gross and systematic human rights and humanitarian violations to permanent peace and reconciliation. Many scholars believe that doing justice versus gross and systematic violations means doing criminal justice. But experience of most of transitional societies established that doing criminal justice in transition period is not only possible, but also so dangerous. It is so dangerous because it makes to jeopardize frangible peace in transitional societies. Most of transitional societies use non-criminal mechanisms such as truth commissions, reparation programs and traditional justice mechanisms in dealing with gross and systematic violations committed during the previous regime. In this paper, I will examine these questions: In a transitional society, what does justice mean? Which of the transitional justice mechanisms (criminal or non-criminal) should be able to meet the needs of a transitional society? Can  non-criminal mechanisms used in the transitional society be recognize in the international level.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Transitional Justice
  • Restorative justice
  • Non-Criminal Mechanisms
  • Reconciliation
  • International Criminal court

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